The Types of Artificial Intelligence Based on Capability

Artificial Intelligence isn’t another buzzword that will fizzle out. It…

Artificial Intelligence isn’t another buzzword that will fizzle out. It is a significant element of modern life that has come to stay. It influences our jobs and the way we interact with others. This article explores artificial intelligence in detail, including the various types of AI.

photo of girl laying left hand on white digital robot
Photo by Andy Kelly on Unsplash

What Is Artificial Intelligence?

Artificial intelligence is the branch of computer studies that finds ways of making machines work and behave in intelligent ways. At its core, AI is all about creating computers and machines that have the capability of complex reasoning and learning. These machines are considered intelligent because they can accomplish tasks that, traditionally, are seen as requiring the services of humans.

Research conducted in the field of artificial intelligence has grown in leaps and bounds in recent times. AI-powered tools are now used in different aspects of human endeavor. 

There are two ways of categorizing AI. AI can be categorized based on functionality and capability. The former has four divisions, while the latter has three divisions. This article analyzes both.

Types of AI Based on Functionality

The four types of artificial intelligence based on functionality are limited memory, reactive machines, theory of mind, and self-aware.

Limited Memory

This type of AI has the ability to absorb or store learning data and improve over time based on experience. This type of AI uses stored data to make better predictions. However, it is called limited memory AI because it cannot create detailed libraries of its experience.

Self-driving cars are prominent examples of machines that use limited memory AI. The algorithms that power these cars use data they were trained and programmed on to understand how to operate. They can also observe data in their environment and adjust when necessary.

Reactive Machines

Reactive machines are the oldest form of AI, and they have limited capacities. These machines don’t have memory-based functionality. Therefore, reactive machines lack the ability to make decisions based on previous experience. Essentially, they only work with present data and cannot learn. This means their future performance does not improve with practice.

Theory of Mind

The first two types of AI are already available. The last two are concepts or works in progress. Theory of mind refers to an AI that has a deep understanding of the entities in an environment, including humans. Such AI is expected to be able to discern the emotions, beliefs, and thought processes of entities surrounding it.


This is a hypothetical stage of artificial intelligence where AI can finally match the depth and sophistication of the human brain. Self-aware AI won’t just be able to understand emotions. It will have its own emotions and beliefs.

Types of AI Based on Capability

The three types of AI based on capability are narrow AI, general AI, and super AI.

Narrow Artificial Intelligence

Narrow AI is also called weak AI or artificial narrow intelligence (ANI). This type of AI focuses on one or a few specific tasks, like playing chess. They can accomplish such tasks with human-like capability. However, they can’t do any other thing apart from that single task. Thus, they have limited capability.

General Artificial Intelligence

Also known as artificial general intelligence (AGI), general AI is a type of AI that can learn and perceive like a human being. General AI enables machines to apply knowledge and skills in different contexts. AGI differs from narrow AI in the sense that the latter isn’t intended to have general cognitive abilities.

Super Artificial Intelligence

Super AI is an AI that eclipses human intelligence. This AI will be able to accomplish tasks better than humans. With super AI, AI becomes so human-like that it doesn’t only understand humans.

It evokes its own desires and beliefs. Some of the major characteristics of super AI are thinking, solving puzzles, making judgments, and making decisions on its own.

The Future of Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence is expected to play a more prominent role in the future. With deep learning and machine learning getting better, we can expect to have some of these hypothetical AIs in the near future. We expect such AIs to complement humans in critical tasks.

To Wrap Up

While some sources limit their classification of AI to one of functionality or capability, this article combines both. With this article, readers have a better understanding of AI, its current state, and its future potential.

Frequently asked questions

What are the types of AI based on capability?

Asynchronous programming is a type of artificial intelligence: reactive machines, limited memory, theory of mind, and cognitive awareness.

What are the 7 types of artificial intelligence?

  • Limited Memory
  • Intelligence (ANI): Artificial Neural Networks.
  • AI (ASIC)
  • Self-Aware
  • Artificial General Intelligence
  • Theory of Mind
  • Reactive Machines

What are the 2 types of artificial intelligence?

There are two types of artificial intelligence available – narrow (or weak) AI and general AI, also called AGI or strong AI.

What capabilities must a machine possess to be called it as intelligent?

Turing introduced a test to check whether a machine can think like a human or not in 1950, known by his name as the Turing Test. Turing proposed that the computer can be considered intelligent if it mimics human reactions under specific conditions.

What are the three categories of AI?

AI, or Artificial Narrow Intelligence, that has a narrow range of abilities; AI, General Intelligent, that is as capable as humans; and AI, which is more capable than humans. Narrow AI or weak AI is also called Artificial Narrow Intelligence or AI.

What are the capabilities of artificial intelligence?

AI allows machines to learn from experience, adjust to new inputs, and perform human-like tasks. AI examples you hear today – from chess-playing computers to self-driving cars – heavily rely on deep learning and natural language processing.

Who is the father of artificial intelligence?

In 1957, John McCarthy, an American computer scientist pioneer and inventor, called himself the Father of Artificial Intelligence after helping to define the field dedicated to the creation of intelligent machines.

What are three capabilities of AI?

The three cognitive skills that AI programs focus on are learning, reasoning, and self-correction. Learning processes. A key aspect of AI programming is to acquire data and create rules for how to turn it into actionable information.

What are levels of artificial intelligence?

AI involves three phases: Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI), Artificial General Intelligibility (AGI), Artificial Super Intelligent (ASI), and Artificial IntelligENCE (ANI).

What are examples of artificial intelligence?

  • Autocorrect or text editors.
  • Digital Assistants
  • E-Payments
  • Social Media
  • Algorithms for Searching and Recommendations.
  • Chatbots
  • Identification and recognition of facial features.
  • Maps and Navigation. The AI revolution has dramatically improved traveling.

What are the 4 types of artificial intelligence?

In artificial intelligence, there are four types: reactive machines, limited memory, theory of mind, and self-awareness.

Which of the following is not a type of AI based on functionality?

(a) Reactive Machines

What is machine learning capable of?

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a kind of machine learning that allows software applications to predict outcomes more accurately without being programmed to do so.

What are the 5 types of artificial intelligence?

  • Explainable AI (XAI)
  • Artificial Intelligence sub-components of machine learning (ML).
  • Computer vision
  • Deep learning. It is this branch of AI that attempts to mimic the human mind.
  • Natural language processing (NLP).

Which is is the category of AI based on the capacity of intelligent program?

As far as Artificial Intelligence, the most common and currently available AI is Closed AI. As narrow AI is only trained for a specific task, it cannot perform beyond its field or limitations.

The Types of Artificial Intelligence Based on Capability

Abir is a data analyst and researcher. Among her interests are artificial intelligence, machine learning, and natural language processing. As a humanitarian and educator, she actively supports women in tech and promotes diversity.

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